Stressors may include parents separating or divorcing and emotional or physical neglect, which may cause problems, especially when they are prolonged or not addressed. Even the birth or move of a sibling may be a stressor which may cause significant difficulties to some children.

There are different types of trauma and related disorders, namely:

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – This is a type of trauma disorder that occurs after a traumatic event. Initial symptoms may be noticed days after a traumatic event or months later. Symptoms may include behavioural changes, avoidance, cognitive disturbances (irritability, negative thoughts and fear/paranoia), and intrusive thoughts (nightmares and flashbacks).

Secondhand trauma – Also known as secondary traumatic stress disorder or trauma exposure response. This type of trauma occurs due to exposure to firsthand trauma of other people. It causes symptoms such as fear, anger, a sense of hopelessness or helplessness, negativity, chronic fatigue, and feeling like you can never do enough to help. Secondhand trauma may affect anyone but most commonly affects professionals who work with trauma victims, such as social workers, counsellors, doctors, first responders, nurses, and other healthcare workers.

Acute stress disorder – This is a type of trauma disorder that is similar to PTSD but is shorter in duration. Symptoms of acute stress disorder develop immediately after a traumatic event and may last approximately 3 days to 1 month. Prompt treatment and appropriate social support may help reduce the risk of ASD progressing and developing into PTSD.


Reactive attachment disorder – People with reactive attachment disorder have limited emotional responses in situations where emotions are expected. It causes symptoms such as lack of remorse after bad behaviour or lack of response to positive or negative emotional triggers.

How are trauma and related disorders treated?

Trauma disorders treatment includes medication and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy may include therapies such as cognitive therapy to help you recognize the thinking patterns that are keeping you stuck and exposure therapy to help you face both situations and memories in order for you to cope with the fear.  


1Who is at risk of PTSD?

People who are at risk of PTSD are the following:

  • Military personnel are exposed to war or combat as well as their family members.
  • Concentration camp survivors.
  • Victims of natural disorders and violent crimes.
  • People who work as train drivers, divers, journalists and sailors.
  • People who work in banks, post offices and in stores.
  • First responders such as police officers, firefighters, ambulances and healthcare professionals.
2What are the complications of PTSD?
Living with PTSD may also increase your chances of developing other mental health problems like eating disorders, suicidal thoughts and actions, issues with drugs and alcohol use, and depression and anxiety.
3Can trauma disorders be prevented?
No, trauma may occur at any given time. Getting timely help and support helps prevent normal stress reactions from getting worse.

"Do not only go through pain but grow through pain"





A psychiatrist is a qualified doctor that specialises in the medical treatment of mental health conditions, including substance use disorders. Psychiatrists can assess both mental and physical aspects of psychological conditions and are able to prescribe appropriate medication.